Organization justice, leader evaluation, outcome satisfaction, rule compliance, employee's trust


This study investigated the relationship between organization justice dimensions namely; procedural justice, distributive justice, informational justice, and interpersonal justice and selected organizational outcomes. Based on the review of the previous literature and studies the research objectives and hypotheses were posed. Organization justice in relation to organizational outcomes was not fully understood particularly in the Eastern countries with a specific focus on Egypt. A questionnaire was constructed, tested and administered to teachers in the International schools in Cairo, Egypt. Results indicate the presence of a relationship between organization justice dimensions and the selected organizational outcomes. Future research should extend to other study sectors within the Egyptian environment as well as expanding the research to include several other organizational outcomes.

Full Text : PDF


Adams, J.S., 1965, 'Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology, New York: Academic Press, Vol.2, pp.267-299

Alexander, S. &Ruderman, M., 1987, ' The role of procedural and distributive justice in  organizational behavior', Social Justice Research, Vol.1, pp.177-198

Aquino, K., 1995,’ Relationships among pay inequity, perceptions of procedural justice, and organizational citizenship’, Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, Vol. 8,          pp.21-33

Bies, R.J., 2001, ' Interactional (in)justice: the scared and the profance', in Greenberg,J., Cropanzano,R. (Eds), Advances in Organizational Justice, Stanford UniversityPress, Palo Alto, CA, pp.85-108

Bies, R.J., 2005, ' Are procedural justice and interactional justice conceptually distinct?', in  Greenberg, J. and Colquitt, J.A (Eds), Handbook of Organizational Justice, Erlbaum, Mahwah,  NJ, pp.85-112

Bies, R. J., &Moag, J. S., 1986,' Interactional justice: Communication criteria of fairness',  In R.

J.Lewicki, B. H. Sheppard, & M. Z. Bazerman (Eds.), Research onnegotiations in organizations, pp. 43–55, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Chou,R.I.A, 2009, ' Organizational justice and turnover intention: a study of direct care workers  in assisted living facilities for older adults in the United States ', Social Development Issues, Vol.31, pp. 69-85

Clay-Warner, J., Reynolds, J. and Roman, P., 2005, ' Organization justice and job satisfaction: a set of three competing models', Social Justice Research, Vol.18, pp.391-409

Cohen-Charash, Y., & Spector, P. E., 2001, 'The role of justice in organizations: A meta-analysis',  Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol.86,pp. 278–321.

Colquitt, J.A. 2001, ' On the dimensionality of organizational justice: A construct Validation of a     measure', Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.86, pp.386-400

Colquitt, J.A., Conlon,D.E., Wesson,M.L., Porter,C.O.L.H, & Ng,K.Y.,2001,'Justice at the   millennium: A meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice', Journal of       Applied Psychology, Vol.86,pp.425-445

Cropanzano, R., &Folger, R., 1991, ' Procedural justice and worker motivation, In R.M.Steers&L.W. Porter (Eds.), Motivation and worker behavior, New York: McGraw-Hill,    Vol.5, pp.131-143.

Cropanzano,R., Greenberg,J., 1997, ' Progress in organizational justice: tunneling through the maze', in Cooper C.L. and Robertson, I.T. (Eds), International Review of Industrial And Organizational Psychology, Wiley, New York, NY, pp. 317-372

Cropanzano, R., &Prehar, C. A., 1999, ‘Using social exchange theory to distinguish procedural       from interactional justice’, Presented at the 14th Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Atlanta, GA

Dailey,R.C., & Kirk, D.J., 1992, ' Distributive and procedural justice as antecedents of job  dissatisfaction and intent to turnover', Human Relations, Vol.45, pp.305-317

Dirks,K.T., &Ferrin,D.L., 2002, 'Trust in leadership: Meta-analytic findings and implications for  research and practice', Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.87,pp.611-628

Folger, R., &Cropanzano,R., 1998, ' Organization Justice and Human Resources Management', Thousand Oaks, London: Sage Publications

Folger, R., &Konovsky,M.A., 1989,' Effects of procedural and distributive justice on reactions to pay raise decisions', Academy of Management Journal, Vol.32, no.1, pp.115-130

Gopanzo, R.E. &Stein, J.H., 2009, ' Organizational Justice and behavioural Ethics: promises; prospects', Business Ethics Quarterly, Vol.19, pp.193-233

Elovainio M, Van den Bos K, Linna A., 2005, 'Combined effects of uncertainty and organizational justice on employee health: Testing the uncertainty model of fairness judgments among Finnish public sector employees. Social Science and Medicine, Vol.61,no.12, pp.2501-2512

Farh,J.L.,Podsakoff,P.M. and Organ,D.W. , 1990,' Accounting for organizational citizenship  behavior: leader fairness and task scope versus satisfaction', Journal of Management, Vol.16, no. 4, pp. 705-721

Folger, R. and Skarlicki, D. P.,(1999), ‘Unfairness and resistance to change: hardship as  mistreatment’, Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol.12, pp.35–50.

Greenberg, J., 1990, ' Organizational justice: yesterday, today, and tomorrow', Journal of Management, Vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 399–432.

Greeberg, J., 1990b, 'Organization Justice: Yesterday, today and tomorrow, Journal of Management', Vol.16, pp.399-432

Greenberg, J., 1993, ' The social side of fairness: interpersonal and informational categories of organizational justice', in Cropanzano, R. (Ed.), Justice in the Workplace: Approaching Fairness in Human Resource Management, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, pp.79-103

Homans, G.C., 1961, Social behavior: Its elementary forms. New York: Hharcourt Brace

Jones, F., 1998, 'Pay procedures and voluntary turnover: does procedural justice matter?’ , Psychological Reports, Vol.83, pp. 475-482

Judge, T.A., Colquitt, J.A., 2004,' Organizational justice and stress: The mediating role of work-      family conflict', Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.89, no.3, pp.395-404

Konovsky, M.A., Cropanzano, R., 1991, ' Perceived fairness of employee drug testing as   predictor of employee attitudes and job performance', Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.76, pp.698-707

Konovsky,M.A.,& Pugh, S.D.,1994, 'Citizenship behavior and social exchange', Academy of Management Journal, Vol.37,pp.656-669

Korsgaard, M. A., & Roberson, L., 1995,’ Procedural justice in performance evaluation: The role of instrumental and non-instrumental voice in performance appraisal discussion’, Journal of Management, Vol. 21, pp. 657-669

Kramer,R., Tyler,T., 1996, 'Whither trust, in Tyler, T. and Kramer, R.(Eds), Trust in Organizations: Frontiers of Thory and Research Sage, Thousand Oaks, C.A', pp.1-15

Leventhal, G. S., 1980, ' What should be done with equity theory? New approaches to the study of fairness in social relationships' In K. Gergen, M. Greenberg, & R. Willis (Eds.), Social exchange: Advances in theory and research (pp. 27-55). New York: Plenum.

Lind, E. A., Kulik, C., Ambrose, M., & de Vera Park, M., 1993,’ Individual and corporate dispute    resolution: Using procedural fairness as a decision heuristic’, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.38, pp. 224-251

Lind, E. A., & Tyler, T. R. , 1988, ' The social psychology of procedural justice',  New York: Plenum.

Masterson, S. S., Lewis, K., Goldman, B. M., & Taylor, M. S., 2000),’ Integrating justice and social    exchange: The differing effects of fair procedures and treatment on work relationships’, Academy of Management Journal, Vol.43,pp. 738-748.

Mayer,R.C.&Davis,J.H., 1999,'The effect of the performance appraisal system on trust for management: a field quasi-experiment', Journal of Applied Psychology,Vol.84, no.1,  pp.123-136

McFarlin, D. B., & Sweeney, P. D. (1992),’ Distributive and procedural justice as predictors of satisfaction with personal and organizational outcomes’,Academy of Management     Journal, Vol.35 No.3, 626-637

Moorman, R.H., 1991, ' Relationship between organizational justice and organizational  citizenship behaviors: Do fairness perceptions influence employee citizenship?, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.76, pp.845-855

Mowday,R., 1991, 'Equity theory predictions of behavior in organizations', in Steers, R. and Porter, L. (Eds), Motivation and Work Behavior, 5th edition, McGraw-Hill, New York,NY,pp. 111-131

Moye, N. A., Masterson, S. S., &Bartol, K. M., 1997,’ Differentiating antecedents and  consequences of procedural and interactional justice: Empirical evidence in support of   separate constructs’, Presented at the 56th Annual Meeting of the National Academy of  Management,Boston, MA.

Parker,C.P., Baltes,B.B. & Christiansen, N.D., 1997, ' Support for affirmative action, justice  perceptions, and work attitudes: A study of gender and racial –ethnic group differences. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.83, pp.376-389

Pierce,J.L., Gardner,D.G., 2002, ' Management and Organizational Behavior: An Integrated Perspective, South-Western, Cincinnati,OH

Pillai, R., Schriesheim, C.A. and Williams, E.S. (1999), “Fairness perceptions and trust as mediators for transformational and transactional leadership: a two-sample study”, Journalof Management, Vol. 25 No. 6, pp. 897-933.

Podsakoff, P.M., Mackenzie, S., Lee, J. and Podsakoff, N., 2003,' Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies',  Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 88, pp. 879-903

Podsakoff, P.M., Mackenzie, S.B. and Podsakoff, N.P., 2012,' Sources of method bias in social science research and recommendations on how to control it', Annual Review of Psychology, Vol.36, pp.539-569

Shapiro,D.L., Brett,J.M., 1993,'Comparing three processes underlying judgements of procedural  justice: A field of study of mediation and arbitration', Journal of Personality and Social       Psychology, Vol.65, pp.1167-1177

Skarlicki,D.P., Lathman, G.P., 1996,' Increasing citizenship behavior within a labor union: A test  of organizational justice theory, Journal of Applied Psychology', Vol.2, pp.161-169

Sweeny, P.D., &McFarlin, D.B., 1993, ' Workers evaluations of the "Ends" and the "Means": An examination of the four models of distributive and procedural justice', Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol.55, pp.22-40

Thau S., Aquino K., and Wittek R., (2007), ‘An extension of uncertainty management theory to the self: The relationship between justice, social comparison orientation, and antisocial work behaviors’,Journal of Applied Psychology,Vol.92 No.1,pp. 250–258

Tyler, T.R. (1999), “Why people cooperate with organizations: an identity-based perspective”, Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol. 21, pp. 201-46.

Tyler, T. R., &DeGoey, P., 1996, ' Trust in organizational authorities: The influence of motive attributions on willingness to accept decisions', In R. Kramer, & T. R. Tyler (Eds.), Trust   in organizations: Frontiers of theory andresearch , pp. 331–356,  Thousand Oaks, CA:   Sage.

Tyler, T. R., DeGoey, P., & Smith, H. J., 1996, ' Understanding why the justice of group procedures matters: A test of the psychological dynamics of the group-value model', Journalof Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 70, pp. 913–930.

Tzafir, S., Simon L., 2004, 'Trust Me: A scale for measuring manager-employee trust', Management Research: The Journal of Iberoamerican Academy of Management, Vol.2, no.2, pp.115-132

Witt, A.L., & Broach, D., 1993,' Exchange ideology as a moderator of the procedural justice- satisfaction relationship', Journal of Social Psychology, Vol.133, pp.97-103