Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, job performance, turnover intentions, role conflict, role ambiguity, role overload, role novelty, education, Egypt.


The purpose of this paper is to explore (1) the effect of the relationship among role stress (role conflict, role ambiguity, role novelty and role overload) on job performance, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intentions; and (2) the situational relationships among job satisfaction, job performance, employee commitment to organizations and employee turnover intentions through a case analysis on college of management and technology (CMT) one of the Arab academy for science and technology and maritime transport. A structured questionnaire was developed. The hypotheses were simultaneously tested on a sample of 65 out of 100 employees distributed, giving a response rate of 65 per cent. Several analytical techniques were used to evaluate the relationships among the variables under investigation such as Pearson correlation, and chi-square. Hierarchical regression was used to evaluate the mediating role. The findings of this study have shown significant relationships among the variables under investigation as well as they have shown contribution as a moderator. It is imperative to better understand how a CMT skilled staff member can effectively and efficiently cope and manage with role stress and reducing or eliminating to a certain extent its negative effect on performance, satisfaction and commitment used in a way not to influence their intention to leave. This investigation is both timely and important within the Egyptian culture context. The research wa

Full Text : PDF

  1. Abdalla, I.A. (1991), "Social support and gender responses to job stress in an Arab culture", Journal of Social Behaviour and Personality, Vol 6, No 7, pp. 273-288.
  2. Abraham, R. (1999), “The impact of emotional dissonance on organizational commitment and intention to turnover”, The Journal of Psychology, Vol. 133, No. 4, pp. 441-455.
  3. Aghdasi, S.; Kiamanesh, A. R.; Ebrahim, A. N., (2011), “Emotional Intelligence and organizational commitment: testing the mediatory role of occupational stress and job satisfaction”, Procedia social andBehavioural Sciences, Vol 29, pp. 1965-1976.
  4. Alniacik, U.; Cigerim, E.; Akein, K.; Bayram, O., (2011), “Independent and joint effects of perceived corporate reputation, affective commitment and job satisfaction on turnover intentions”, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 24, pp. 1177-1189.
  5. Armutlulu, I. H.; and Noyan, F. (2011), “A multilevel of organizational commitment”, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol.30, pp.2139-2143.
  6. Arnold, T.; Flaherty, K. E.; Voss, K. E.; Mowen, J. C., (2009), “Role Stressors and Retail Performance: The Role of Perceived Competitive Climate”, Journal of Retailing, Vol.85, No. 2, pp. 194-205.
  7. Babin, B. J.; and Boles, J.S., (1996), “The effects of perceived co-worker involvement and supervisor support on service provider role stress, performance and job satisfaction”, Journal of Retailing, Vol.72, Spring, pp. 57-75.
  8. Bagozzi, R. P. (1978), "Sales force performance and satisfaction as a function of individual difference, interpersonal and situational factors", Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 15 (November), pp. 517-31
  9. Bateman, T., and Organ, D. W., (1983), “Job satisfaction and the good soldier: The relationship between affect and employee citizenship”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol 26, pp.587−595.
  10. Bateman, T., and Strasser, S., (1984), “A Longitudinal analysis of the antecedents of organizational commitment”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol 27, pp. 95−112.
  11. Beehr, T. A.; and Franz, T. M., (1987), “The current debate about the meaning of job stress”, Journal of organizational behaviour management, Vol. 8, (Fall-Winter), PP: 5-18.
  12. Behrman, D. N.; and Perreault, W. D. Jr, (1984), "A role stress model of the performance and satisfaction of industrial salespersons", Journal of Marketing, Vol. 48, Fall, PP: 9-21.
  13. Bhuian, S. N., and Menguc, B., (2002), “An extension and evaluation of job characteristics, organizational commitment and job satisfaction in an expatriate, guest worker, sales setting”, Journal of
  14. Personal Selling and Sales Management, Vol 22, pp. 1−11.
  15. Black, S. (1988) “Work Role Transitions: A Study of American Expatriate Managers in Japan,” Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp.277-294.
  16. Boles J.S.; Babin, B.J., (1996) “On the front lines: stress, conflict, and customer service provide”, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 37, No. 1, pp.41–50
  17. Boshoff, C., and Mels G. (1995), "A causal model to evaluate the relationships among supervision, role stress, organizational commitment and internal service quality", European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 29 No. 2, pp. 23-42.
  18. Brown, A. D. and Humphreys, M. (1996), "International cultural differences in public sector management: Lessons from a survey of British and Egyptian technical education manager", International Journal of Public Sector Management, Vol. 8 No. 3, pp.5-23.
  19. Brown, S. P. and Peterson, R.A. (1994), "The effect of effort on sales performance and job satisfaction", Journal of Marketing, Vol. 58, pp. 70-80.
  20. Brown, S.P and Peterson, R.A. (1993), "Antecedents and consequences of salesperson job satisfaction:
  21. meta-analysis and assessment of causal effects", Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 30, pp. 63-77.
  22. Buitendach, J.H.; and De Witte, H., (2005), “Job insecurity, extrinsic and intrinsic job satisfaction and affective organisational commitment of maintenance workers in a parastatal”, South African Journal of Business Management, Vol. 36, No. 2, pp.27-37.
  23. Carbery, R.; Garavan, T.N.; O’Brien, F.; McDonnell, J.,(2003), “Predicting hotel managers’turnover cognitions”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 18, No. 7, pp. 649–679.
  24. Chatman, J., (1991), “Matching people and organizations: Selection and socialization in public accounting firms”, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol 36, pp.459−484.
  25. Chen, C. F., (2006), “Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and flight attendants’ turnover intentions: A note”, Journal of Air Transport Management, Vol. 12, pp. 274–276.
  26. Chiang, F.F.T.; and Britch, T.A., (2011), “Reward climate and its impact on service quality orientation and employee attitudes”, International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 30, pp. 3-9.
  27. Cho, Y. N; Rutherford, B. N.; Park, J. K. (2012), “Emotional labour’s impact in a retail environment”, Journal of Business Research, pp. 1-8 Under press.
  28. Chung, B. G. and Schneider, B. (2002), "Serving multiple masters: role conflict experienced by service employees", Journal of services Marketing, Vol. 16 No. 1, pp. 70-87.
  29. Coelho, F.; Augusto, M.; Coelho, A.; Sá, P.; Soares, E., (2005), The indirect effects of organizational culture on salesperson customer orientation. 34th EMAC proceedings, Milan.
  30. Currivan, D. B. (1999), “The causal order of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in models of employee turnover”, Human Resource Management Review, Vol 9, pp. 495−524.
  31. Deconinck, J.B. (2009), “The effect of leader-member exchange on turnover among retail buyers”, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 62, No.11, pp. 1081- 1086.
  32. Draper, J.; Halliday, D.; Jowett, S.; Norman, I.; Watson, R.; Wilson-Barnett, J.; Normand, C.; O’Brien, K., (2004), “NHS cadet schemes: student experience, commitment, job satisfaction and job stress”, Nurse Education Today, Vol. 24, pp. 219-228.
  33. Dubinsky, A. J.; Howell, R. D.; Ingram, T. N.; Bellenger, D. N., (1986), “Sales force socialization”, Journal of Marketing, Vol 50, (October), pp. 192−207.
  34. Duxbury L; and Higgins C., (2001), “Work life in the new millennium: where are we? Where do we need to go?”. Discussion Paper, vol. W12. Canadian Policy Research Networks, October.
  35. Farkas, A.J. and Tetrick, L.E. (1989), “A three-wave longitudinal analysis of the causal ordering of satisfaction and commitment on turnover decisions”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 74, pp. 855-868.
  36. Fitcher, C. and Cipolla, J. (2010), "Role Conflict, Role Ambiguity, Job Satisfaction, and Burnout among Financial Advisors", The Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, Vol. 15 No. 2, pp.256-261.
  37. Fletcher, C.; and Williams, R., (1996), “Performance management, job satisfaction and organizational commitment”, British Journal of Management, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp.169–179.
  38. Fried Y,; Ben-David, H.A.; Tiegs, R.B,; Avital, N.; Yeverechyahu, U., (1998),“The interactive effect of role conflict and role ambiguity on job performance”, Journal of Occupational Organizational Psychology Vol.71, pp.19–27.
  39. Ganesan, S., and Weitz B. A. (1996), "The impact of Staffing Policies on Retail- Buyer Job Attitudes and Behaviours", Journal of Retailing, Vol. 72 No. 1, PP. 31-56.
  40. Gieter, S. D.; Hofmans, J.; Pepermans, R. (2011), “Revisiting the impact of job satisfaction and organizational commitment on nurse turnover intention: An individual differences analysis”, International Journal of Nursing Studies, Vol.48, pp. 1562-1569.
  41. Golden, T.D.; and Veiga, J.F., (2008), “The impact of superior-subordinate relationships on the commitment, job satisfaction, and performance of virtual workers”, The Leadership Quarterly, Vol 19, pp. 77-88.
  42. Griffeth, R.W.; Hom, P.W.; Gaetner, S., (2000), “A meta-analysis of antecedents and correlates of employee turnover: update, moderator tests, and research implication for the next millennium”, Journal of Management, Vol. 26, pp. 463–488.
  43. Guleryuz, G.; Guney, S.; Aydin, E.M.; Asan, O., (2008), “The mediating effect of job satisfaction between emotional intelligence and organizational commitment of nurses: A questionnaire survey”, International Journal of Nursing Studies, Vol. 45, pp. 1625-1635.
  44. Hackman, J.R.; and Oldham, G. R., (1974), “The job diagnostic survey: An Instrument for the diagnosis of jobs and the evaluation of job redesign projects”, Technical report # 4 New Haven, CT: Department of Administrative Sciences, Yale University.
  45. Hackman, J.R.; and Oldham, G. R., (1975), “Development of the job diagnostic survey”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.60, No. 2, pp. 159-170.
  46. Hartline, M. D. and Ferrell, O. C. (1996), "The management of customer-contact service employees: an empirical investigation", Journal of Marketing, Vol. 60 (October), pp.52-70.
  47. Hoppock, R. (1935). Job satisfaction. New York: Harper and Brother.
  48. House, R. J., and Dessler, G. (1974), The path- goal theory of leadership: Some post hoc and a priori tests. In J. Hunt and L. Larson (Ed), Contingency approaches to leadership (pp.29-55). Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
  49. House, R. J., and Mitchell, T. R. (1974), "The path- goal theory of leadership", Contemporary Business, Vol. 3, pp.81-98.
  50. House, R. J., and Rizzo, J, R. (1972), "Role conflict and ambiguity as critical variables in a model of organisational behaviour", Organisational Behaviour and Human Performance, Vol. 7 (June), pp. 467-505.
  51. House, R. J.,(1971), “A Path-Goal theory of leadership effectiveness”, Administrative Science quarterly, Vol. 16 (September), PP.321-338.
  52. Hrebiniak, L.G.; and Alutto, J., (1972), “Personal and role-related factors in the development of organizational commitment'', Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 17, pp. 555-73.
  53. Humphreys, M. (1996),"Culture difference and its effect on the management of technical education", Leadership and Organisation Development Journal, Vol.. 17 No. 2, pp .34–41.
  54. Hunt, S. D.; Chonko, L. B.; Wood, V. R, (1985), “Organizational commitment and marketing”, Journal of Marketing, Vol 49, pp. 112−126.
  55. Hunt, S.D.; Chonko, L. B.; Wood, V. R., (1985), “Organizational commitment and marketing” Journal of Marketing, Vol 49, (winter), pp. 112–26.
  56. Huselid, M.A., (1995), “The impact of human resource management practices on turnover, productivity and corporate financial performance” Academy of Management Journal, Vol.38, No. 3, pp.635– 672.
  57. Huselid, M.A.; Becker, B.E., (1996), “Methodological issues in cross-sectional and panel estimates of the human resource-firm performance link”, Industrial Relations, Vol. 35, No. 3, pp. 400–422.
  58. Igbaria, M.; Meredith, G.; Smith D.C., (1994), “Predictors of intention of IT professionals to stay with the organization in South Africa”, Information and Management, Vol. 26, No. 5, pp. 245–256.
  59. Ingram, T.N.; and Kuen, S.L., (1990), “Sales force commitment and turnover”, Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp.149–154.
  60. Ivancevich, J.M.; and Matteson, M.T. Organizational Behavior and Management, 4th ed., Irwin, Chicago, 1996.
  61. Ivancevich, J.M.; Napier, H.A.; Wetherbe, J.C., (1985), “An empirical study of occupational stress, attitudes and health among information systems personnel”, Information and Management, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 77–85.
  62. Johnston, M. W.; Varadarajan, R. P.; Futrell, C. M.; Sager J., (1987), “The relationship between organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among new salespeople”, Journal of Personal Selling Sales Management, Vol. 7,(November), pp.29–38.
  63. Jones, E.; Chonko, L.B.; Rangarajan, D.; Roberts, J.A., (2007), “The role of overload on job attitudes, turnover intentions, and salesperson performance”, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 60, pp. 663-671.
  64. Jones, E.; Roberts, J.A.; Chonko, L.B., (2000), “Motivating sales entrepreneurs to change: a conceptual framework of factors leading to successful change management initiatives in sales organizations”, Journal of Marketing Theory Practice, Vol.8, [Spring], pp.37–49
  65. Jones, E.; Stevens, C.; Chonko, L.B., (2005), Selling ASAP: Art, Science, Agility,
  66. Kacmar, M. K.; Carlson, D. S.; Brymer, R. A., (1999), “Antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment: A comparison of two scales”, Educational and Psychological Measurement, Vol 59, pp. 976−994.
  67. Kahn, R.L., Wolfe, D.M., Quinn, R.P., Snoeck, J.D., and Rosenthal, R.A. (1964), Organisational stress: studies in role conflict and ambiguity, New York: Prentice-Hall.
  68. Kalbers, L. P.; and Cenker, W. J. (2007), "Organizational commitment and auditors in public accounting", Managerial Auditing Journal, Vol. 22 No. 4, pp.354-375.
  69. Karatepe, O. M.; Yavas, V.; Babakus, E.; Avci, T., (2006), “Does gender moderate the effects of role stress in frontline service jobs?”, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 59, pp. 1087-1093.
  70. Katz D., and Kahn, R. L. (1978), The social psychology of organisations (2nd Ed.) New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
  71. Keaveney, U.M., (1992), “An Empirical investigation of dysfunctional organizational turnover among chain and non-chain retail store buyers”, Journal of Retailing, Vol. 68, No. 2, pp. 145-173.
  72. Kim, T.; Cable, D.M; Kim, S., (2005), “Socialization tactics, Employee pro-activity, and Person– Organization fit”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 90, No. 2, pp. 232−241.
  73. Kim, W. G.; and Brymer, R. A., (2011), “The effects of ethical leadership on manager job satisfaction, commitment, behavioral outcomes, and firm performance”, International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 30 pp. 1020– 1026.
  74. Kim, W. G.; Leong, J. K.; Lee, Y. K., (2005), “Effect of service orientation on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and intention of leaving in a casual dining chain restaurant”, International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 24, pp.171-193.
  75. Koch, J.; and Steers, R., (1978), “Job attachment, satisfaction, and turnover among public sector employees”, Journal of Vocational Behaviour, Vol. 12, pp. 119-128.
  76. Koustelios, A.; Theodorakis, N.; and Goulimaris, D. (2004), "Role ambiguity, role conflict and job satisfaction among physical education teachers in Greece", The International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 18 No. 2, pp.87–92.
  77. Krausz, M.; Brandwein, T.; Fox, S., (1995), ‘‘Work attitudes and emotional responses of permanent, voluntary, and involuntary temporary-help employees’’, Applied Psychology: an International Review, Vol. 44, pp. 217-32.
  78. Lam, T., Baum, T., and Pine, T. (2001),"Study of managerial job satisfaction in Hong Kong’s Chinese restaurants", International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 13 No. 1, pp.35-42.
  79. Larsen, S.; Marnburg, E.; Øgaard, T., (2012), “Working onboard e Job perception, organizational commitment and job satisfaction in the cruise sector”, Tourism Management, No.33, pp. 592-597.
  80. Leat, M. and El-Kot, G. (2007), "HRM practices in Egypt: the influence of national context?" The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 18 No. 1, pp.147-58.
  81. Lee, Y.-K.; Park, D.H.; Yoo, D., (1999), “The structural relationships between service orientation, mediators, and business performance in Korea hotel firms”, Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 59–70.
  82. LeRouge, C.; Nelson, A.; Blanton, J. E., (2006), “The impact of role stress fit and self-esteem on the job attitudes of IT professionals”, Information and Management, Vol. 43, pp. 928-938.
  83. Locke, E. A. (1969), “What is Job Satisfaction?”, Organizational Behaviour and Human Performance, Vol.4, No. 4, pp. 309–36.
  84. Locke, E. A., (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. M. D. Dunnette (Ed). Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Behavior. (pp. 1297-1349). Chicago: Rand Mc Nally.
  85. Locke, E.A. and Latham, G.P. (1990), A Theory of Goal Setting and Task Performance, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
  86. Low, George S., Cravens, David W., Grant, Ken, and Moncrief, William C. (2001), "Antecedents and consequences of salesperson burnout", European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 35 No. (5/6), pp:587-611.
  87. Lucas, G.H.; Parasuraman, A,; Davis, R.A.; Enis, B.M., (1987), “An empirical study of sales force turnover”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 51(July), pp.34– 59.
  88. MacKenzie, S. B.; Podsakoff, P. M.; Ahearne, M., (1998), “Some possible antecedents of in-role and extra-role salesperson performance”, Journal of Marketing, Vol 62, (July) pp.87−98.
  89. Martin, C.L.; and Bennett, N., (1996), “The role of justice judgments in explaining the relationship between job satisfaction and organization commitment”, Group and Organization Management, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 84–104.
  90. Mathieu, J.E.; and Hamel, K., (1989), “A causal model of the antecedents of organizational commitment among professionals and non professionals”, Journal of Vocational Behaviour, Vol. 34, pp. 299– 317.
  91. Mathieu, J.E.; and Zajac, D.M., (1990), “A review and meta-analysis of the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of organizational commitment”, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 108, No. 2 (September), pp. 171-194.
  92. Mengiuc, B. (1996), “The influence of the market orientation of the firm on sales force behavior and attitudes: Further empirical results”, International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol. 13, pp. 277-291.
  93. Meyer, J. P., and Allen, N. J. (1997). Commitment in the Workplace: Theory, Research, andApplication. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  94. Meyer, J. P.; Allen, N. J.; Smith, C. A., (1993), “Commitment to organizations and occupations: Extension and test of a three component conceptualization”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 78 No 4, pp.538−551.
  95. Meyer, J. P.; and Allen, N. J., (1991), “A three component conceptualisation of organizational commitment”, Human Resource Management Review, Vol 1 No 1, pp. 61−89.
  96. Meyer, J. P.; Bobocel, D. R.; Allen, N. J., (1991), “Development of organizational commitment during the first year employment: A longitudinal study of pre- and post-entry influence”, Journal of Management, Vol. 17, pp. 717–733.
  97. Miles, R. H.; and Perreault, W. D. Jr, (1976), “Organizational role conflict: its antecedents and consequences”, Organizational Behaviour and Human Performance, Vol 17, October, PP: 19-44
  98. Mobley, W. H., (1982). Employee turnover: causes, consequences, and control. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing.
  99. Mobley, W.H., (1977), “Intermediate Linkages in Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Employee Turnover”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 62, p. 4.
  100. Moncrief, W. C., Babakus, E., Cravens, D. W, and Johnston, M. (1997), "Examining the antecedents and consequences of salesperson job stress", European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 31 No. (11/12), pp: 786-798.
  101. Montgomery, D., Cameron, B., Jeffrey G., and Barnes, J. H. (1996). "A model of financial securities salespersons’ job stress", The Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 10 No. 3, pp.21-38.
  102. Moorman, C. (1995), "Organisational market information processes: cultural antecedents and new product outcomes", Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 32 (August), pp.318-335.
  103. Mor Barak, M.E.; Levin, A.; Nissly, J.A.; Lane, C.J., (2006), “Why do they leave? Modeling child welfare workers’ turnover intentions”, Children and Youth Services Review, Vol. 28, pp. 548-577.
  104. Morley, M. J., and Flynn, M. (2003), "The Relationship between work-role characteristics and intercultural transitional adjustment domain patterns among a sample of US and Canadian expatriates on assignment in Ireland", Cross Cultural Management, Vol. 10 No. 3, pp.42-57.
  105. Mount, G., (2006). The role of emotional intelligence in developing international business capability: EI provides traction. In V. U. Druskat, F. Sala, & G. Mount (Eds.), Linking emotional intelligence and performance at work: Current research evidence with individuals and groups. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  106. Mowday, R.; Porter, L. W.; Steers, R. M., (1979), “The measure of organizational commitment”, Journal Vocational Behaviour, Vol. 14, pp. 224-247.
  107. Mowday, R.; Porter, L. W.; Steers, R. M., (1982), “Employee–organizations linkages: The psychology of commitment, absenteeism, and turnover”, (New York): Academic Press.
  108. Mueller, C.W.; and Price, J.L., (1990), “Economic, psychological and sociological determinants of voluntary turnover”, Journal of Behavioural Economics, Vol.19, pp. 321–335.
  109. Nasr, S (2009), "Are Banks in Egypt Catalysts for Economic Development?" Oxford Business and Economics Conference (OBEC).
  110. Netemeyer, R.G., Boles, J.S., McKee, D.O. and McMurrian, R. (1997), "An investigation into the antecedents of organisational citizenship behaviors in a personal selling context", Journal of Marketing, Vol. 61 No3, pp.85-98
  111. Odom, R.Y.; Boy, W.R.; Dunn, M.G., (1990), “Organizational culture, commitment, satisfaction and cohesion”, Public Productivity and Management Review, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 157–168.
  112. Ohana, M.; and Meyer, M. (2010), “Should I stay or should I go now? Investigating the intention to quit of the permanent staff in social enterprises”, European Management Journal, No 28, pp. 441-454.
  113. O'Reilly, C. A. and Caldwell, D. F., (1981), “The commitment and job tenure of new employees: Some evidence of post-decisional justification” Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol 26, pp. 597−616.
  114. Ownes, R.G., and Steinhoff, C.R., (1989), "Toward a theory of organisational culture", Journal of Educational Administration, Vol. 27, pp.6-16.
  115. Owusu-Frimpong, N. (1999), "Patronage behaviour of Ghanaian bank customers", The International Journal of Bank Marketing, Bradford, Vol. 17 No. 7, pp.335-342.
  116. Pallant, J. (2001).SPSS Survival Manual, Open University Press.
  117. Panatik, S. A. B.; Rajab, A.; Shaari, R.; Saat, M. M.; Wahab, S. A.; Noordin, N. F. M., (2012), “Psychosocial Work Condition and Work Attitudes: Testing of the Effort-Reward Imbalance Model in Malaysia”, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 40, pp. 591-595.
  118. Panatik, S. A. B.; Rajab, A.; Shaari, R.; Saat, M.M.; Wahab, S. A.; Noordin, N. F. M., (2012), “Psychosocial Work Condition and Work Attitudes: Testing of the Effort-Reward Imbalance Model in Malaysia”, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 40, pp. 591 – 595.
  119. Paulin, M.; Ferguson, R. J.; Bergeron, J., (2006), “Service climate and organizational commitment: The importance of customer linkages”, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 59, pp. 906-915.
  121. Pierce, J. L. and Dunham, R. B., (1987), “Organizational commitment: Pre-employment propensity and initial work experiences”, Journal of Management, Vol 13, pp.163−178.
  122. Pinder, C. and Schroeder, K. (1987) “Time to proficiency following job transfers,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp.336-356.
  123. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., and Hui, C. (1993), "Organisational citizenship behaviours and managerial evaluations of employee performance: A Review and Suggestions for Future Research", Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, Vol. 11, pp.1-40.
  124. Porter, L. W.; Steers, R. M.; Mowday, R. T.; Boulian, P. V., (1974), “Organizational commitment, job satisfaction and turnover among psychiatric technicians”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 59, pp. 603−609.
  125. Poznanski, P.; and Bline, D., (1997), “Using structural equations modelling to investigate the causal ordering of job satisfaction and organizational commitment among staff accountants”, Behavioural Resources Accounting, Vol.9, pp. 154-71.
  126. Prager, H. (2003), "Gaining a competitive advantage through customer service training", Industrial and commercial training, Vol. 35 No 6, pp.259-262.
  127. Prager, H. (2003), "Gaining a competitive advantage through customer service training", Industrial and commercial training, Vol. 35 No 6, pp.259-262.
  128. Price, J.L.; and Mueller, C.W., (1981), “A causal model of turnover for nurses”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 24, pp. 543–565.
  129. Punnett, B.J.; Greenidge, D.; Ramsey, J.,(2007) “Job attitudes and absenteeism: A study in the English speaking Caribbean”, Journal of World Business, Vol. 42, pp. 214-227.Quinn, R.E. (1988), Beyond rational management: Mastering the paradoxes and Competing demands of high performance. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  130. Quinn, R.E. and McGrath, M.R. (1985), “The transformation of organizational cultures: a competing values perspective”, in Frost, P.J. (Ed.), Organizational Culture, Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA.
  131. Quinn, R.E., Spreitzer, G. M., and Gretchen, M. (1991), "The psychometrics of the competing values culture instrument and an analysis of the impact of organisational culture on quality of life", Research in Organisational change and Development, Vol. 5, pp.115-142.
  132. Rayton, B.A., (2006), “Examining the interconnection of job satisfaction and organizational commitment: an application of the bivariate probit model”, International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 17, No.1, pp. 139-154.
  133. Reilly, M.D., (1982), “Working wives and convenience consumption”, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 8, [March], pp. 407-418.
  134. Riketta, M., (2002), “Attitudinal organizational commitment and job performance: a meta-analysis”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 23, pp. 257-66.
  135. Rizzo, J. R., House, R. I., and Lirtzman, S. I. (1970), "Role Conflict and Ambiguity in Complex Organisations", Administration Science Quarterly, Vol. 15 (June), pp.150-63.
  136. Rogers, J. D., Clow, K. E., and Kash, T. J. (1994), "Increasing Job Satisfaction of Service Personnel", Journal of services Marketing, Vol. 8 No. 1, PP.14-26.
  137. Rutherford, B. N.; Boles, J., Hamwi, A. G.; Madupalli, R.; Rutherford, L., (2009), “The role of the seven dimensions of job satisfaction in salesperson's attitudes and behaviours”, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 62, pp. 1146–1151.
  138. Sahinidis, A. G.; and Bouris, J. (2008), "Employee perceived training effectiveness relationship to employee attitudes", Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 32 No. 1, pp.63-76.
  139. Salehi, M.; and Gholtash, A., (2011), “The relationship between job satisfaction, job burnout and organizational commitment with the organizational citizenship behaviour among members of faculty in the Islamic Azad University –first district branches, in order to provide the appropriate model”, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 15, pp. 306-310.
  140. Schein, E., (1968), “Organizational socialization and the profession of management”, Industrial Management Review, Vol 9, pp.1−6.
  141. Schuler, R.S. (1979), "A role perception transactional process model for organisational communication-outcome relationships", Organisational Behaviour and Human Performance, Vol. 23, pp.268-291.
  142. Schwepker Jr., C. H. (2001), “Ethical climate’s relationship to job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention in the sales force”, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 54, pp. 39-52.
  143. Shan, M. H., (1998), “Professional commitment and satisfaction among teachers in urban middle schools”, The Journal of Educational Research, Vol 92, pp. 67-73.
  144. Shaw, J.D., (1999), “Job satisfaction and turnover intentions: the moderating role of positive affect”, The Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 139, No. 2, pp. 242–244.
  145. Shin, H. S.; and Reyes, P., (1995), “Teacher Commitment and Job Satisfaction: A Causal Analysis”, Journal of School Leadership, Vol. 5, pp. 22-39.
  146. Silverthorne, C., (2004), ‘‘the impact of organizational culture and person-organization fit on organizational commitment and job satisfaction in Taiwan’’, Leadership and Organization Development Journal, Vol. 25, No. 7, pp. 592-599.
  147. Singh J., (1998), “Striking a balance in boundary-spanning positions: an investigation of some unconventional influences of role stressors and job characteristics on job outcomes of salespeople”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 62, [July], pp. 69–86
  148. Singh J., (2000), “Performance productivity and quality of frontline employees in service organizations”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 64, pp. 15-34.
  149. Singh J.; Goolsby, J.R.; Rhoads, G.K., (1994), “Behavioral and psychological consequences of boundary spanning burnout for customer service representatives”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 31, [November], pp.558-569.
  150. Skinner, S. J.; Dubinsky, A. J.; Donnelly, J. H., Jr., (1984), “The use of social bases of power in retail sales”, Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, Vol. 4, No.2, pp. 49–56.
  151. Slatten, T. (2008),"Antecedents and effects of emotional satisfaction on employee-perceived service quality", Managing Service Quality, Vol. 18 No. 4, pp.370-386.
  152. Smith, PC., L.M. Kendall and C.L. Hulin, (1969). The measurement of satisfaction in work and retirement: A strategy for the study of attitudes. Chicago: Rand McNally.
  153. Sohi, R. S., (1996), "The effects of environmental dynamism and heterogeneity on salespeople's role perceptions, performance and job satisfaction", European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 30 No 7, pp.49-67.
  154. Sohi, R. S.; Smith, D. C.; and Ford, N. M. (1996), "How Does Sharing a Sales Force Between Multiple Divisions Affect Salespeople?" JAMS, Vol. 24 No. 3, pp.195-207.
  155. Somers, M., (1995), “Organizational commitment, turnover and absenteeism: an examination of direct and indirect effects”, Journal of Organizational Behaviour, Vol. 16, pp. 49-58.
  156. Sousa-Poza, A.; and Henneberger, F., (2003), “Analyzing job mobility with job turnover intentions: An international comparative study”. Discussion Paper No. 82, Research Institute for Labour Economics and Labour Law, University of St. Gallen.
  157. Spector, P. E. (1997). Job Satisfaction. Application, assessment, causes, and consequences. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc.
  158. Staw, B. M., (1980), Rationalization and justification in organizational life. In B. M. Staw, & L. L.Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behaviour (pp. 45−80). Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press.
  159. Steers, R. (1977), “Antecedents and outcomes of organizational effectiveness'', Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 22, pp. 40-56.
  160. Still, L. V., (1983), “Part-time versus full-time salespeople: Individual attributes, organizational commitment, and work attitudes”, Journal of Retailing, Vol 59, pp. 55−79.
  161. Stodgill, R. M.(1974), Handbook of leadership: A survey of theory and research. (1st ed.). New York:Free Press.
  162. Stogdill, R., (1974), Handbook of Leadership: A Survey of Theory and Research, Free Press, New York,NY.
  163. Sverke, M.; and Sjöberg, A., (1994), “Dual commitment to company and union in Sweden: An examination of predictors and taxonomic split methods”, Economic and Industrial Democracy, Vol. 15, pp. 531–564.
  164. Sweeney, J.T.; Quirin, J.J., (2009), “Accountants as layoff survivors: A research note”, Accounting, organizations and society, Vol. 34, pp. 787-795.
  165. Teas, K. R., (1983), “Supervisory Behaviour, role stress, and the job satisfaction of industrial salespeople”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol 20, February, pp.84-91.
  166. Tett, R. P.; and Meyer, J. P., (1996), “Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention: path analyses based on meta-analytic findings”, personal Psychology, Vol 46, No. 2 (June), pp. 259-293.
  167. Tett, R.; and Meyer, J.,(1993), “Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention and turnover: path analyses based on meta-analytic findings”, Personnel Psychology Vol. 46, pp. 259–293.
  168. Trice, H., and Beyer, J. (1993), The Culture of Work Organization, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ Trivellas, P. and Dargenidou, D. (2009),"Organisational culture, job satisfaction and higher education service quality. The case of Technological Educational Institute of Larissa", The TQM Journal, Vol. 21 No. 4, pp.382-399.
  169. Tsai, P. C. F.; Yen, Y. F.; Huang, L. C.; Huang, I. C., (2007), “A study on motivating employees’ learning commitment in the post-downsizing era: Job satisfaction perspective”, Journal of World Business, Vol. 42, pp. 157-169.
  170. Udo, G.J.; Guimaraes, T.; Igbaria, M., (1997), “An investigation of antecedents of turnover intention for manufacturing plant managers”, International Journal of Operations and Production Management, Vol 17, No 9, pp. 912–924.
  171. Vakola, M. and Bouradas, B. (2005), "Antecedents and consequences of organisational silence: an empirical investigation", Employee Relations, Vol. 27 No. 5, pp.441-458.
  172. Vandenberg, R. J.; and Lance, C. E., (1992), “Examining the causal order of job satisfaction and organizational commitment”, Journal of Management, Vol 18, pp. 153-167.
  173. Vilela, B. B.; Gonzalez, J. A. V.; Ferrin, P. F., (2008), “Person-organization fit, OCB and performance appraisal: Evidence from matched supervisor–salesperson data set in a Spanish context”, Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 37, pp.1005-1019.
  174. Walker, O. C. Jr.; Churchill, G. A; and Ford, N. M., (1975), “Organizational Determinants of the Industrial Salesman’s Role Conflict and Ambiguity”, Journal of Marketing, Vol 39, January, PP: 32-39.
  175. Walker, O. C. Jr.; Churchill, G. A; and Ford, N. M., (1977), “Motivation and Performance in Industrial Selling: Present knowledge and Needed Research”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol 14, May, PP: 156-168.
  176. Wan, H. L. (2007)," Human capital development policies: enhancing employees’ satisfaction", Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 31 No. 4, pp.297-322.
  177. Wegge, J.; Schmidt, K.; Parkes, C.; Van Dick, K., (2007), “Taking a Sickie’: job satisfaction and job involvement as interactive predictors of Absenteeism in a Public Organization”, Journal of Occupational andOrganizational Psychology, Vol 80, pp. 77-89.
  178. Williams, L. J.; and Hazer, J.T., (1986), “Antecedents and consequences of satisfaction and commitment in turnover modes: a re-analysis using latent variables structural equation methods”, Journal ofApplied Psychology, Vol. 71, No. 2, pp. 219-231.
  179. Wong, C.S.; and Law, K.S., (2002), “The effects of leader and follower emotional intelligence on performance and attitude: an exploratory study”, The Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 13, pp. 243–274.
  180. Wright, T. A. (2005). The role of “happiness” in organizational research: Past, present and future directions. In P. L. Perrewe, & D. C. Ganster (Eds.), Research in occupational stress well-being (pp. 225–268). Amsterdam: JAI.
  181. Yamaguchi, I. (2012), “A Japan–US cross-cultural study of relationships among team autonomy, organizational social capital, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment”, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, pp. 1-14, under press.
  182. Yang, F. H., and Chang, C. C., (2008), “Emotional labour, job satisfaction and organizational commitment amongst clinical nurses: A questionnaire survey”, International Journal of Nursing Studies, Vol.45, No. 6, pp. 879-887.
  183. Yang, J. T., (2010), “Antecedents and consequences of job satisfaction in the hotel industry”, International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 29, pp. 609-619.
  184. Yavas, U.; and Bodur, M., (1999), “Satisfaction among expatriate managers: correlates andconsequences”, Career Development International, Vol 4, No. 5, pp. 261–269.
  185. Youssef, D. A. (2000 a), "The Islamic work ethic as a mediator of the relationship between locus of control, role conflict and role ambiguity A study in an Islamic Country setting", Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 15 No. 4, pp..283-302.
  186. Youssef, D. A. (2002), "Job satisfaction as a mediator of the relationship between role stressors and organisational commitment. A study from an Arabic culture Perspective", Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 17 No. 4, pp.250-266.
  187. Youssef, D.A. (2000 b), “Organisational commitment: a mediator of the relationships of leadership behaviour with job satisfaction and performance in a non-western country”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 15 No. 1, pp.6-28.
  188. Yucel, I.; and Bektas, C., (2012), “Job satisfaction, organizational commitment and demographic characteristics among teachers in Turkey: Younger is better?”, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 46, pp. 1598 – 1608.
  189. Zeffane, R. and McLoughlin, D. (2006), "Cooperation and stress: Exploring the differential impact of job satisfaction, communication and culture", Management Research News, Vol. 29 No.10, pp.618-631.
  190. Zeinabadi, H. (2010), “Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as antecedents of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) of teachers”, Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 5, pp.998-1003.
  191. Zeinabadi,H.; and Salehi, K., (2011), “Role of procedural justice, trust, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment in Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) of teachers: Proposing a modified social exchange model”, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 29, pp. 1472-1481.