Country personality; affective country image; behavioral intentions; behavioral intentions to visit; Portugal; Brazil


The purpose of the current research is to investigate the direct and indirect influence of country personality dimensions on consumer behavioral intentions to visit a specific country, considering affective country image as a mediator. A quota sample of 685 valid respondents from Brazil was analyzed. Portugal was chosen as the stimulus country and the questionnaire was delivered in Portuguese for Brazilians. AMOS 20.0 was employed to examine the proposed model. The predictors of behavioral intentions to visit explain around 67% of its variance. Affective country image is seen a perfect/full mediator between country personality and behavioral intentions to visit. Thus, country personality dimensions have a positive indirect effect on behavioral intentions to visit. Assiduousness and agreeableness show a positive significant influence on affective country image, whereas snobbism shows a significant negative influence. International business marketers should focus on developing marketing strategies emphasizing the distinctive personality of their country destinations. However it is important to keep in mind the higher importance of the emotional components of the country image.

Full Text : PDF

  • Baron, R. M. & Kenny, D. A., 1986. The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations.. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), pp. 1173-1182.
  • Boulding, K. E., 1956. The image: Knowlegde in life and society. MI - Michigan: University of Michigan Press.
  • Boulding, K. E., 1988. The image: Knowledge in life and society. This week's citation classic, 28 november, p. 20.
  • Brijs, K., 2006. Unraveling country-of-origin: simiotics as a theoretical basis for meaning-centered approach towards country-of-origin effects.. Nijmegen: Radboud Universiteit.
  • Bryman, A. & Cramer, D., 2009. Quantitative Data Analysis with SPSS 14, 15 & 16. A guide for social scientists. New York: Routledge.
  • Burcio, C., Da Silva, R. V. & Salgueiro, F., 2014. The impact of country personality on behavioral intentions: Five dimensions rather than the original six. Vienna, Austria, WEI, p. 15.
  • Canally, C. R., 2010. An exploration of American and canadian tourist destination images of Cuba. s.l.:Wilfrid Laurier University.
  • Chao, P. & Rajendran, K. N., 1993. Consumer profiles and perceptions: Country-of-origin effects. International Marketing Review, Volume 10, pp. 22-39.
  • d' Astous, A. & Boujbel, L., 2007. Positioning countries on personality dimensions: Scale development and implications for country marketing. Journal of Business Research, Volume 60, pp. 231-239.
  • d' Astous, A. & Boujbel, L., 2007. Positioning countries on personality dimensions: Scale development and implications for country marketing.. Journal of Business Research, Volume 60, pp. 231-239.
  • Davies, G., Chun, R., Da Silva, R. V. & Roper, S., 2001. The personification metaphor as a measurement approach for corporate reputation.. Corporate Reputation Review, Volume 4, pp. 113-127.
  • Ekinci, Y. & Hosany, S., 2006. Destination personality: An application of brand personality to tourism destinations. Journal of Travel research, Volume 45, pp. 127-139.
  • Ernst & Young, 2011. FDI in Europe: Europe's True Market Value., s.l.: s.n.
  • Fournier, S., 1998. Consumers and their brands: Developing relationship theory in consumer reserach.. Journal of Consumer Research, Volume 24, pp. 343-373.
  • Gartner, W. C., 1993. Image formation process.. Journal of Travel & Tourism marketing, Volume 2, pp. 191-215.
  • Geuens, M., Weijters, B. & De Wulf, K., 2009. A new measure of brand personality. International Journal of Research in Marketing, Volume 26, pp. 97-107.
  • Goldberg, L. R., 1990. An alternative 'description of personality': The big-five factor structure.. J Pers Soc Psychol, Volume 56, pp. 1216-1229.
  • Hair, J. J. F. et al., 2005. Multivariate Data Analysis. 6th ed. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  • Heslop, L. A., Lu, I. & Cray, D., 2008. Modeling country image effects through an international crisis. International Marketing Review, Volume 25, pp. 354-378.
  • Hu, L. T. & Bentler, P. M., 1999. Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, Volume 6, pp. 1-55.
  • IBGE, 2013. IBGE - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. [Online] Available at:
  • [Accessed 07 06 2014].
  • Jaffe, E. D. & Nebenzahl, I. D., 2006. National image and competitive advantage.. Copenhagen Business Schoool Press.
  • Kester, J. G. C., 2014. International Tourism Results and Prospects for 2014. Madrid, UNWTO, pp. 1-14.
  • Kiesler, T., 2006. Anthropomorphism and consumer behavior.. Advances in Consumer Research, Volume 33, p. 149.
  • Knight, G. A. & Calantone, R. J., 2000. A flexible model of consumer country-of-origin perceptions. International Marketing review, 17(2), pp. 127-145.
  • Lee, J. & Lijia, X. I., 2012. Cognitive destination image, destination personality and behavioral intentions: An integrated perspective of destination branding.. s.l.:s.n.
  • Maher, A. a. & Carter, L. L., 2011. The affective and cognitive components of country image: Perceptions of American products in Kuwait.. International Marketing Review, 28(6), pp. 559-580.
  • McCrae, R. R. & Costa, P. T., 1996. Toward a new generation of personality theories: Theoretical contexts of the five-factor model.. In: J. S. Wiggins, ed. The Five-Factor Model of Personality: Theoretical Perspectives. New York: Guilford, pp. 51-87.
  • Nebenzahl, I. D., Jaffe, E. D. & Usunier, J. C., 2003. Personifying country of origin research.. Management International Review, Volume 43, pp. 383-406.
  • Nebenzahl, I. D., Jaffe, E. D. & Usunier, J. C., 2003. Personifying country of origin research.. Management International Review, Volume 43, pp. 383-406.
  • Nunnally, J. C. & Bernstein, I. H., 1994. Psychometric theory. 3rd ed. ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Orbaiz, L. V. & Papadopoulos, N., 2003. Toward a model of consumer receptivity of foreign and domestic products.. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 15(3), pp. 101-126.
  • Papadopoulos, N. & Heslop, L. A., 1993. Product country images: Impact and their role in international marketing.. In: Product Country Images. New York: The Haworth Press, pp. 159-178.
  • PLC, 2013. Observatório da Língua Portuguesa (Portuguese Language Center). [Online] Available at:
  • [Accessed 11 November 2013].
  • Roth, K. & Diamantopoulos, A., 2008. The preditive validity of alternative country personality measures: An empirical investigation. Brighton, EMAC.
  • Roth, K. P. & Diamantopoulos, A., 2009. Advancing th country image construct.. Journal of Business Research, Volume 62, pp. 726-740.
  • Sirgy, M. J., 1982. Self-concept in consumer behavior: A critical review. Journal of Consumer Research, Volume 9, pp. 287-300.
  • Soderlund, M. & Ohman, N., 2003. Behavioral intentions in satisfaction research revisited.. Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior, pp. 53-66.
  • Um, S. & Crompton, J. L., 1990. Attitude determinants in tourism destination choice. Annals of Tourism Research, Volume 17, pp. 432-448.
  • Usakli, A., 2009. The relationship between destination personality, sel-congruity, and behavioral intentions. Las Vegas: UNLV - University Libraries.
  • Velten, E. J., 1968. A laboratorytask for induction of mood states. Behavior Research & Therapy, Volume 6, pp. 473-482.
  • Verlegh, P. W. J., Benedict, J. & Steenkamp, E. M., 1999. A review and meta-analysis of country-of-origin research.. Journal of Economic Phycology, Volume 20, pp. 521-546.
  • Wang, C.-y. & Hsu, M. K., 2010. The relationships of destination image, satisfation, and behavioral intentions: An integrated model. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, Volume 27, pp. 829-843.