The impact of entry modes of Foreign Direct Investment towards unemployment: Evidence from Asian countries
This study attempts to examine the impact of entry modes of foreign direct investment (FDI) namely Greenfield investment and Brownfield investment towards unemployment in 25 Asian countries over the period of 2006 – 2015 (10 years) where the countries were divided into three groups: total, developing and developed Asian countries. The Breuch-Pagan Lagrange Multiplier test has been used to determine whether Ordinary Least Square or Fixed Effect-Instrumental Variables is appropriate for this study. In order to avoid the endogeneity problem that usually occurs in the panel data analysis, this study includes instrumental variables in the fixed effect estimators. The results depict mixed findings where both total and developed Asian countries are negatively significant between FDI and unemployment while both of the entry modes are insignificant. However, for the case of developing Asian countries, this study found insignificant and positive relationship between FDI and unemployment, while both entry modes of FDI were negatively significant towards unemployment. Thus, this study concludes that the entry modes of FDI are significant to reduce unemployment in developing Asian countries compared to developed Asian countries.
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Effect of public debt on economic growth in Nigeria: An empirical analysis 1981 - 2018
The study investigated the effect of public debts on economic growth of Nigeria for the period of thirty-eight (38) years, 1981 to 2018. Relevant secondary data were sourced from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical bulletin and Debt Management Office. Among the objectives of the study is to: analyze the effect of domestic debts on the economic growth of Nigeria and evaluate the effect of foreign debts on the economic growth of Nigeria. The findings showed that domestic debts of the Federal government of Nigeria is positive and statistically significant to economic growth of Nigeria while foreign debts contribute less to the economic growth of the country. Cost of debts servicing is significant and has a negative effect on economic growth.
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Socio-economic developments under ‘Belt and Road Initiative’ of China: Regional and global dimensions (Pakistan, a Case in Point)
The fundamental theme of ‘economic growth driven concept’ introduced by China through ‘Belt and Road Initiative’ is to connect the business world in the contemporary environments of today and in times to come. Business and trade are fundamental to all economic pursuits of communities and societies. The people being more quality consciousness are looking for better, affordable and easily available products. This implies that in times to come, firms producing goods and services would require to be more competitive, innovative and agile to come up-to the standards of consumers. That is possible when they are better connected in people to people and state dimensions for sustaining growth of business and trade.
The spirit behind Chinese Initiative of creating a network of roads and track appears to be idealized for mutual businesses where all stakeholders have win-win positions. The economic and social growth is the idea behind this initiative and countries especially those involved through corridors have very important roles to play for its ultimate success. ‘Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) has two main components; one is ‘Silk Road Economic Belt’ and second ‘Maritime Silk Road’ covering land and sea voyage respectively. It covers Europe, Africa, Eurasia, Middle east, South East Asia and East Asia. Pakistan becomes its part through China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC).
The paper aims at analyzing BRI with respect to its economic benefits to the states and social cohesion through business communications and interactions. It is based on secondary data about BRI and related economic corridors. Its analysis is based on mix methodology, corroborating quantitative and qualitative aspects. In its findings, the paper provides avenues of socio-economic developments of participating states and implications on cultural aspects as well as challenges. In its concluding parts, it also invites further studies to continue providing more academic insights to the readers.
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The crowding effects of foreign direct investment on domestic investment: Evidence from Asia
This paper intends to investigate the impacts and consequences of the inflow of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) on Domestic Investment (DI) by the occurrence of the financial crisis (before, during and after Asia financial crisis) in Asia. The data were collected from 1993 to 2001 and separated into three sub-periods of 1993-1995 (Before Asia Financial Crisis), 1996-1998 (During Asia Financial Crisis) and 1999-2001 (After Asia Financial Crisis), consisting of 38 Asian countries. In this paper, we estimated the data using the balanced panel data of Fixed Effects (FE) and Random Effects (RE) estimators with the existence of Instrumental Variables (IV). The general empirical finding found that FDI has crowded out (negative) effect on DI for all sub-periods where sub-periods during and after the Asia financial crisis showed significant results. Thus, this study concludes that the inflow of FDI is not statistically significant and harmful for DI before the Asia financial crisis. However, the impact of FDI is significant but negatively correlated with DI for the case of during and after the Asia financial crisis. Therefore, this study reveals that different economic conditions influence the inconsistent significance or not significant impact of FDI on DI in Asian countries.
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The impact of remittances on household investment in Nigeria
Remittances are monetary and non-monetary items that migrants send to members of their respective families and communities in their countries of origin. Several studies have argued that remittances rarely fund productive investment while others argued otherwise. Previous studies have focused on the impact of the aggregate remittances on households’ investment without considering the roles of the different types of remittances like aggregate, cash, food and other remittances on households’ investment in Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to analyse the impact of the various types of remittances on households’ investment in the rural areas, urban areas and in the geo-political zones of Nigeria. Data were obtained from the Harmonised Nigerian Living Standard Survey of 2009/2010. The study was premised on the Investment Theory. The Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) technique was used in estimating the model and probit regression was used as robustness check of the OLS estimate. Instrumental variable test was used to verify the existence of endogeneity in the model. The impacts of the aggregate, cash, food and other remittances on households’ investments are chequered in the rural areas, urban areas and in the geo-political zones of Nigeria.
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Adoption of green jobs in Mauritius: drivers and challenges
This study investigates the drivers and challenges faced by Mauritian organisations in implementing green jobs. Data was collected through online questionnaires to companies in six major sectors of the economy to identify their level of awareness, to investigate their readiness to embark into green jobs while at the same time, assess the drivers and the challenges.
The results showed that the implementation of green jobs in Mauritius is at an early stage and that much needs to be done. Furthermore, Spearman rho correlation found no relation between sector activity and the level of awareness. Moreover, regardless of the sector that the companies are; they face the same difficulties to implement green jobs. The study however showed that firms that do not have green jobs, do engage in green practices like the use of renewable energy, minimising pollution and maximising the use of day light. The major drivers identified were customer preferences and government regulations while the major challenges which emerged were costs and the lack of trained employees.
Based on the findings, recommendations were made with respect to the enhancement of existing regulations and policies, subsidisation of costs and dispensing of training programmes to stakeholders concerned
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