Risk culture development and its impact: the case of the Caribbean Development Bank
Previous risk culture research has concentrated on the regulated commercial banking and insurance sectors in developed economies. The paucity of studies for developing economies has prompted this research. The objective of this paper is to examine risk culture development and its impact within the Barbados-based Caribbean Development Bank. Given the unregulated nature of development banking, it was anticipated that the risk culture environment within this type of institution would be different to the risk culture environment inherent in regulated entities and will provide a good platform for new findings.
Primary data were collected via an interview with the Chief Risk Officer in August 2015 and a three-month field observation at the Bank. The paper utilizes the KPMG risk culture maturity model in conjunction with an adapted version of the Horst Simon risk culture maturity scale to classify the maturity level of risk culture within the Bank.
An important finding from the research is that accountability, awareness, communication and leadership have become strong indicators of the Caribbean Development Bank’s risk culture and have contributed to increased uniformity in risk management knowledge, improved coordination of risk data collation and better escalation of risk management issues. Thus, there has been enhanced efficiency of risk management practices within the Bank.
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Analysis of internal barriers toward the growth of start up business in Indonesia
This study aims to analyzed internal barriers such as motivation, management capacity, funding and marketing influenced toward the growth of start up Business in Indonesia. This research in SME’s Indonesia using samples from 100 respondent with sample technique is purposive sampling. Data collection method used a questionnaire, documentation and interview. The method of analysis used is multiple linier regression. The result showed that the motivation, management capacity, funding and marketing influence on the growth of start up business in Indonesia.
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Comparative analysis between public and private investment in human capital: A case of Nepal
Human capital investment is seen at employee's learning of job-related behavior, skills, knowledge, and attitude that tends to improve better performance. This paper compares the human capital investment in public and private sectors of Nepal using Human Capital Report, Human Development Report and Employees Opinion working at public and private enterprises. Empirical studies mostly focused human capital as a function of education and experience.
This study compares the status of human capital in the context of Nepal more specific to education and health investment. Firstly, the status of educational investment in human capital in Nepal shows significant improvement trend as primary school teachers trained percentage is increasing, pupil-teacher ratio has been decreasing and the percentage of population with least some secondary education has also been increasing. Secondly, Government contribution on health expenses is at negligible level i.e. below six percent of GDP. Finally, employees’ overall perception of human capital investment in private sectors has higher influence than the public sectors. This shows that government intervention on human capital investment is not adequate and found less prioritized which might be one of the key reasons for low per capita in the country.
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How lawyers increase government deficits, trade deficits and current account deficits: theory and cross-national evidence
We find that rent seeking as measured by lawyers significantly increases country trade deficits, country current account deficits and government budget deficits. Rent seeking thus increases the international borrowing of countries. A GDP identity linking government deficits with external current account deficits means that increased lawyers in an economy makes it borrow more internationally, thereby lowering the country’s net worth.
This paper constructs a dynamic intertemporal model of an open macro economy with lawyer-based redistribution. Countries with high lawyer densities have larger government deficits. Countries with higher percentages of lawyers in their national parliaments have larger government budget deficits. But with only 16 observations, we cannot assert that with statistical significance.
Theoretically, our intuition is that increased redistributions of wealth convert the capital stock into income for both the lawyers and their redistributees. Ironically, short-term increases in lawyer rent seeking provide an illusory short run increase in competitiveness because country GDP rises but in the long run, the capital stock, income and the country’s trade balance all decline.
Three-stage least-squares estimates across data sets containing 22 and 47 countries confirm the theory. Our cross-national data shows that increased redistributive activity proxied by lawyers has no effect on the private savings gap relative to investment. Thus, the mechanism by which greater redistributive activity reduces a country’s international current account may be directly through greater government budget deficits.
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Human Development and Multidimensional Poverty Alleviation Empirical Study on Egypt
The purpose of this study is to assess multidimensional poverty in Egypt during the last decade at both of national level and sub-national level and examine the role of human development strategies in alleviating poverty prevalence across different regions in Egypt. This paper uses national and subnational data to investigate how human development strategies can reduce multidimensional poverty rates. The data analysis indicates high variations in income poverty and human poverty between rural and urban regions as governorates in the rural areas- especially in Lower Egypt- have higher multidimensional poverty rates than upper urban governorates. The empirical analysis revealed that human development strategies must be used as a weapon against poverty. It has proven that adequate education and health policies enhancement lead to the reduction and alleviation of poverty and to eliminate the regional disparities of multidimensional poverty in Egypt.
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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
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