The US won the global currency war against Europe and Japan: Their retaliation likely helped elect Trump
The United States financial community, lax regulations and the Fed started a global currency war in 2002. The inadvertent cheapening of the US dollar was a by-product of what became the US subprime lending crisis and the financial collapse in 2008. From 2002-2008, the Fed created so much liquidity that the dollar fell 33% relative to the yen and 40% relative to the euro. In response to the 2008 crash, the Fed had to ramp up US money creation again, generating $4 trillion in money creation by 2014. World interest rates fell and raw materials and commodity producers in emerging markets borrowed nearly $5 trillion. Overproduction and the slowdown of China caused a Third World oil and commodity market collapse around 2015.
Beginning in 2014, other advanced countries retaliated and declared a global currency war of their own against United States. They created their money with a vengeance. Just as the US had done, this made the currencies of Europe, Japan and Britain 20 to 25% cheaper and their goods became more competitive relative to US goods.
As a result, the US became the importer of last resort for cheap foreign goods from 2014 until the election in November of 2016. Only time will tell whether the US currency war that we won from 2002-2014 and the retaliation war we lost from 2014-2016 helped Trump get elected.
The parallel is inescapable that the US also started the world tariff and trade war in 1930 with the passage of the Smoot Hawley tariff, which extended the length of the Great Depression. The US currency war pushed Japan even further into recession and weakened Europe. US quantitative easing became a beggar-thy-neighbor policy against our trading partners.
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The Factors affect equity investors in India
Financial specialist conduct is a focal idea in the behavioral fund which breaks down the impact of different factors on singular value speculator basic leadership. The nature and centrality of these factors on financial specialist basic leadership can be unique and intriguing in different nations. This investigation, thusly, looks at the impact of financial, and behavioral, factors in molding the venture conduct of value speculators in India.
The factor incorporates advocate suggestion, unbiased data, individual back requirements, bookkeeping data, established riches expansion and mental self-view/firm-picture incident. The examination found the solid impact of mental self-portrait/firm-picture occurrence, unbiased data, and supporter suggestion on value speculator basic leadership. While, no impacts of variables like great riches amplification, bookkeeping data, and individual budgetary needs are found on value financial specialist's basic leadership with regards to India.
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An Examination of Market Entry Perspectives in Emerging Markets
Purpose – The purpose of this article is to describe the marketing-oriented market entry approaches that businesses are currently using across the three levels of the world economic pyramid (i.e., WEP). These levels are the Top-tier, the Middle-tier, and the Base of the Pyramid-tier (i.e., BoP-tier).
Methodology – The literature of the BoP was reviewed, and market entry approaches were itemized across the three WEP levels. Secondly, BoP strategic theorists including Prahalad identified the need for a BoP marketing focus replacing the traditional 4Ps marketing approach (i.e., Product, Price, Place and Promotion) with the BoP-specific 4As marketing approach (i.e., Awareness, Affordability, Access and Availability). This 4As marketing approach is discussed.
Findings – New marketing-oriented market-entry approaches are proposed for each of the three WEP levels. These approaches are based on where in the WEP the firm currently exists, and where in the WEP the firm desires to refocus market-entry activities; identified approaches include: inter-country expansion, intra-country entry, adjacent market entry, and extended market entry. Secondly, the absence of a clearly articulated marketing strategy for middle-tier markets was observed.
Practical implications – This article has two specific applications. First, it summarizes the evolving market entry perspectives to provide a context for future market research in both emerging markets and the pre-emerging BoP markets. Second, the future requirement for an articulated marketing strategy for middle-tier markets is suggested.
Originality – This article examined existing market entry approaches across all three levels of the WEP, inclusive of the BoP economic level. The language used to clarify market entry movements was extended, providing a specificity of description not previously found in either the existing market entry or BoP literature.
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The Cultural Genogram: An International Cross-Cultural Case Study on Entrepreneurship
Experiential entrepreneurship has become a significant pedagogy in preparing American students to compete in the dynamic and consolidating global economy. Whereas the model of experiential learning facilitates collaboration between industry experts, entrepreneurs and community stakeholders, it is imperative to look at entrepreneurship from a global perspective. Medgar Evers College has a mission for social justice and socio-economic transformation. Through the Entrepreneurship & Experiential Learning (EEL) lab, students are exposed to industry leaders, faculty and other stakeholders to the benefits of global entrepreneurship and experiential learning.
This paper is a case study that discusses lessons learned on innovation, culture and entrepreneurship from students and faculty’s exposure to innovation and international entrepreneurs from Kenya, Chile, Costa Rico, Jamaica, Dominican Republic, China, London, Paris, Japan and Thailand. Additionally, the paper addresses the implications of entrepreneurial learning by encouraging diverse perspectives and practice for student entrepreneurs in the 21st century. The originality of the paper is in its diversity of perspectives – it is a collaboration of faculty and staff on three different continents and three academic institutions.
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Interface between marketing, policy and development in emerging economies. An exploratory study and evaluation
This paper explores the role of marketing, policy, and development for emerging economies moving toward a market-driven economic environment. A historical review provides a foundation, then deductive analyses from theoretical reviews and transcripts reveal that such marketing is still in the developmental stages and has become necessary for the future direction of these economies. Following the findings, the paper provides managerial marketing implications and highlights how a market orientation and market-driven approach is necessary for the greater social good in a global economy.
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Policy, market size, trade openness & natural resources endowment im-pact on foreign direct investments; A Meta-analysis of MENA Oil Pro-ducing Countries
Purpose: To assess the impact of policy, market size, trade openness & natural resources endowment on foreign direct investments in MENA countries. Methods: Meta-analysis has been incorporated that has combined data from multiple studies. It has systematically assessed the results of previously conducted researches for obtaining accurate results. The study has incorporated incomplete and unbalanced data from 17 MENA countries between the years 1960 and 2012.
The data was obtained from World Development Indicators, World Bank, and Energy Information Administration. Results: The results have identified that oil reserves have a negative influence on FDI inflows. Trade openness was positive and significant at 5%. Similarly, the impact of market size, measured as GDP constant, was also positive and significant at 10%. Conclusion: It has been evaluated that market size, trade openness, and natural resource have a positive impact on foreign direct investments among MENA countries. Originality Statement: The study is based on certain factors for assessing their impact on FDIs. Such originality has a closer relevance to assessing the market size, trade openness and natural resources among oil-producing countries.
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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
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