Keyword

Inclusive entrepreneurship, inclusivity, persons with disability

Abstract

There have been many definitions of inclusion as it relates to the underserved and economic empowerment through entrepreneurship, but few of these definitions have focused specifically on persons with disabilities.

 Purpose of Research- Many studies have looked at increasing economic empowerment through entrepreneurship for women, minorities, youth, seniors, immigrants, and rural residents throughout literature. The gap is, however, the lumping of all these categories has led to overlooking of specific challenges faced by persons with disabilities. This oversight on economic inclusivity has been magnified especially during the Coronavirus pandemic.

Design/ Methodology- This study reviews literature in search of evidence to document programs, projects, and policies used in both developed and developing countries to address the overall challenges of inclusive entrepreneurship. The paper explores several entrepreneurial studies on the inclusivity of business ecosystems in the UK, USA, Sub-Saharan Africa, and India. It highlights public-private partnerships and impact investment as it relates to challenges in increasing inclusivity in businesses.

Results/Findings- It was evident that there are many government policies and programs to support entrepreneurship in the USA, UK, Sub-Saharan Africa, and India, but limited empirical studies have been documented to evaluate the impact of these policies on entrepreneurship for persons with disabilities. Some of the challenges cited in the literature included gender gap, cost of doing business, and the likelihood to be funded to launch a business as common dominant factors reported on the issue of inclusion. 

Practical implications and Conclusions-The authors find that there are much more empirical research and analyses warranted in the study of entrepreneurship inclusion and empowerment of the underserved, especially for persons with disabilities. A continue reviewing literature and use quantitative and qualitative research such that additional programs, projects, and policies may be developed to serve all inclusively.


Full Text : PDF

References
  1. African Economic Outlook (AEO), (2017) Statistics, Real GDP growth rate. Retrieved on February 29, 2020 from: http://www.africaneconomicoutlook.org/en/statistics 2019) Inclusive Development in Africa
  2. Ganesh, U; Memon, V.; Kaushl, A. and Kumar, K., (2018) The Indian Social Enterprise Landscape Innovation for an Inclusive Future, Retrieved on February 19, 2020 from:
  3. https://www.bertelsmann-stiftung.de/fileadmin/files/Projekte/7_Deutschland_und_Asien/Study_The_Indian_Social_Enterprise_Landscape_2018.pdf#page=79
  4. Global Economic Monitor: Ph.d.  Research Bureau (2020),
  5. https://www.phdcci.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/Global-Economic-Monitor-January-2020.pdf Retrieved on February 29, 2020 from
  6. Include (2019). Synthesis Report: Inclusive Development in Africa, March 2019. Retrieved on February 29, 2020 from: https://includeplatform.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/ID-synthesis-INCLUDE-Final.pdf
  7. Ntonta, J. (2019) Inclusive entrepreneurship for people with disabilities in DR Congo. Retrieved on February 27, 2020 from: https://www.entrepreneurship-campus.org/ideas/24/13262/.  
  8. OECD/European Union (2015). The Missing Entrepreneurs 2015: Policies for Self-employment and Entrepreneurship, OECD Publishing, Paris Retrieved on February 18, 2020 from https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/sites/74f22f51- en/index.html?itemId=/content/component/74f22f51-en
  9. Pilková, A. Jančovičová, Z. and Kovačičová, Z. (2016). Inclusive entrepreneurship in Visegrad4 countries. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 220. 312 – 320.
  10. Rauniyar, G., and Kanbur, R. (2009). Conceptualizing inclusive development: with applications to rural infrastructure and development assistance. Asian Development Bank.
  11. Republic of Ghana. (2014). National shared growth and development agenda 2, 2014–2017. Retrieved on February 29, 2020 from: http://www.un-page.org/files/public/gsgda.pdf  
  12. Republic of Kenya. (2006). Kenya vision 2030. Retrieved on February 29, 2020 from: http://vision2030.go.ke/
  13. Republic of Uganda. (2015). Second national development plan 2015/16–2019/20. Retrieved from: http://npa.ug/wp-content/uploads/NDPII-Final.pdf
  14. Rolle J.D & Kisato J. (2019) The future of work and entrepreneurship for the underserved. Conference proceedings of the Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM), USA. The Business and Management Review, Volume 10 Number 2.
  15. Shaheen, G. (2016). Inclusive Entrepreneurship: A Process for Improving Self-Employment for People with Disabilities, Journal of Policy Practice. 15:1-2, 58-81
  16. Skrylnik, A.; Valiavskiy, S.; Voloshina, O. (2019) Inclusive entrepreneurship infrastructure development: Special Aspects in Ukraine. International Journal of Engineering & Technology (7).
  17. Thompson, H.; Shepherd, B.; Welch, G.and Anyimadu, Adjon (2017) Developing Businesses of Scale in Sub-Saharan Africa Insights from Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. Retrieved on February 29, 2020 from:
  18. https://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/default/files/publications/research/2017-09-08-business-of-scale-africa-thompson-shepherd-welch-anyimadu-final.pdf
  19. United Nations (2015) Sustainable Development Goals. Retrieved on February 29, 2020 from:
  20. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/
  21. United Nations (2015) Sustainability Goals, SDG8. Retrieved on February 29, 2020 from
  22.  https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdg8 [Accessed: 01-08-2020]
  23. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. (2017). Innovation, diversification, and inclusive development in Africa. UNCTAD research paper No. 2, 2017. Retrieved on February 29, 2020 from
  24. http://unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/ser-rp-2017d2_en.pdf
  25. UNCTAD (2019) Borderline: Women in Informal Cross- Borderline Trade, Malawi, the United Republic of Tanzania, and Zambia. Retrieved on February 29, 2020 from: 
  26. https://unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/ditc2018d3_en.pdf#page=57
  27. UNDP (2013) Realizing Africa’s Wealth, Building Inclusive Businesses for Shared Prosperity    Retrieved on February 29, 2020 from:
  28. https://www.undp.org/content/dam/undp/library/corporate/Partnerships/Private%20Sector/IBE/UNDP%20AFIM%20Realizing%20Africas%20Wealth.pdf#page=53
  29. Vandemoortele, J. (2017). From MDGs to SDGs: critical reflections on global targets and their measurement. Chapter 3 in: Van Bergeijk, P.A.G. and Van der Hoeven, R. [2017]. Sustainable Development Goals and Income Inequality. Edward Elgar Publishing